The Sky - International Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science

Solar-Eclipse Observations In Pakistan: Health And Safety Considerations

Prof. Dr. Syed Arif Kamal


This paper addresses health issues associated with the observations of solar eclipses, in particular, eclipse retinopathy due to observation of partial-solar eclipses without proper protection to eyes. Partial- and total-solar-eclipse expeditions conducted by the author during 19952008 are described. Violation of Kepler’s second law of planetary motion was witnessed during the 1995 total-solar-eclipse expedition and the same was confirmed during the 1999 total-solar-eclipse expedition. During the 1995 expedition, seconds before the end of totality, the black circular disc changed into an elliptical shape of eccentricity 0.26, with the major axis vertical to horizon. Safe viewing of eclipse is recommended through special glasses made from 2 layers of completely exposed ASA 100 film as well as UV-cutoff glasses.

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